The Zionist movement was formed at the end of the century. 19th century as a reaction to the humiliations, persecutions and discrimination motivated by anti-Semitism in Europe, especially in Eastern Europe. The task of Zionist organizations was to prepare the youth to create and build a Jewish state in Palestine, then under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. The emphasis was on knowledge of Jewish history and tradition, on moral education, on acquiring practical skills, especially in the field of agriculture. The young people trained in camps and on farms set up for this purpose.